Insights uses the following common terms in the product documentation and in the user interface:

Active contributors

It refers to those contributors who are contributing to the project or contributed to the project in the last six month from the current date.

Affiliated contributor:

A contributor who is committing code or participating in the project on behalf of an organization.


In GitHub, approve is a review status when someone submits feedback and approves merging the changes proposed in the pull request.


An author is the person who originally wrote a piece of code in Git.


A backlog is a list of all things that need to be done within a project.

Backlog Management Index

Backlog Management Index (BMI) is the number of closed issues divided by the number of open ones in a given period of time.


A Git branch is an independent line of development. A branch lets you isolate your work from others. Changes in the primary branch or other branches do not affect your branch, unless you decide to pull the latest changes from those branches.


Bugzilla is an open source defect tracking tool that can be used for managing software development.


In GitHub, comment is a review status when someone submits feedback without approving the changes proposed in the pull request.


A commit is an individual change to a file or set of files. A committer is anyone who made a commit or pull request on behalf of the original author.


Atlassian Confluence is a content tool that teams use to collaborate and share knowledge. Confluence lets users create pages and blogs, which all team members can comment on and edit.


A Contributor is someone (typically a developer) who contributes code to a GitHub/Gerrit/GitLab project.


A contribution is a review, comment, commit, issue, or pull request. A contributor is someone from the outside not on the core development team of the project that wants to contribute some changes to a project, but does not have collaborator access.

Churn rate

Churn rate is defined as the total number of inactive contributors. It is calculated as: Total Inactive Contributors recorded at the end of the time period/ (Total Active Contributors recorded at the start + Total New Contributors who joined during the selected time period)


A dashboard is a data visualization that displays analytics metrics and important data points for an organization, a project, and other data on a single page.

Data affiliation

Data affiliation connects or associates identities. Affiliation is a close association or connection to an organization, company, and so on. An example of affiliation is being a member of a community organization. Or, a member could belong to two or more companies that are related through common ownership, but are treated as one. In this case, a single member might have multiple identities such as two different company emails.

Data Source

Data sources are the collaboration tools or the remote servers that are used by projects to drive the development of a project. For example, in a database management system, the primary data source is the database, which can be located in a disk or a remote server. The data source for a computer program can be a file, a data sheet, a spreadsheet, an XML file or even hard-coded data within the program.

Free and Open Source Software (FOSS)

Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) development is software developed by informal collaborative networks of programmers.


Gerrit is a free web-based team code collaboration tool. Software developers in a team can review each other's modifications on their source code using a Web browser and approve or reject those changes. Gerrit integrates closely with Git.


Git is an open source program for tracking changes in source code during software development.

GitHub is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git.


In Identity Management, an identity is a record (tuple) composed of a name, email, username, and the name of the source from where it was extracted.

Inactive contributors

It refers to those contributors who did not contribute to the project in the last six month from the current date.

Individual contributors

Individual contributors are those who are contributing to the project in an individual capacity, such as freelancers, and do not have affiliation to any organization.


In GitHub, an issue is a suggested improvement, task, or question that is related to the repository. Anyone can create an issue (for public repositories). Issues are moderated by repository collaborators.


Jenkins is an open source continuous integration software tool for testing and reporting on changes in a code base in real time.

Jira is an issue tracking product that allows bug tracking and agile project management.


A label is a classifying name or phrase on a project that identifies subjects for the project repositories.

Mailing list

A mailing list is a list of email addresses that allows for a wide distribution of information to many Internet users.

New contributor

A new contributor is someone who has never contributed to the project before, and is contributing for the first time.

Onion model analysis

In GitHub, onion model analysis defines the number and identity of core, regular, and casual contributors. These contributors are individuals who have done 80 percent (core), 15 percent (regular), and 5 percent (casual) of the contributions to a project.

Open source community

The open source community is a body of programmers who develop and participate in computer programs in which the source code is available to the general public for use or modification from its original design. open source code is a collaborative effort, where programmers improve the source code and share the changes within the community.


In GitHub, an organization is a collection of user accounts that own repositories. Organizations let businesses and open source projects collaborate across many projects at once.


A patch is a set of changes to a computer program to update, fix, or improve it the program. In Git, a patch is a small file that indicates what was changed in a repository.


A project defines any open source collaborative effort, which can be a specific repository (for example, FOSS), a coalition of like projects (for example, LF Energy), or a formal organization, for example, Cloud Native Computing Foundation). Other project definitions follow:

  • Public domain project—A non-Linux Foundation project that is managed independently of the Linux Foundation, but that is participating in one or more Linux Foundation services (for example, Express Gateway, Vue.js).

  • Member project—A Linux Foundation project that maintains its own governance and membership (for example, Cloud Native Computing Foundation or LF Networking).

  • Nonmember project—A Linux Foundation project that does not maintain its own formal governance and membership, but is instead directly managed by the Linux Foundation, for example FOSS.

  • Member subproject—A Linux Foundation project whose governance and membership is managed using a parent member project, but may also provide its own limited, more focused, governance (for example, Kubernetes).

Pull request

A pull request (PR) is a proposed change to a repository that is submitted by a user and accepted or rejected by repository collaborators.


A push refers to sending your committed changes to a remote repository. A pusher is someone who sends committed changes to a remote repository, such as a repository hosted on GitHub.


A repository is an element in GitHub that contains all the project files (including documentation) and stores each file's revision history.

Review Efficiency Index

Review Efficiency Index (REI) is the number of closed pull requests divided by the number of open ones in a given period of time.

Slack is a cloud-based set of team collaboration tools and services.


A submit is an action that lets you comment on a pull request, approve proposed changes, or request changes that must be addressed before the pull request can be merged. A submitter is someone who performs the submit.

Unaffiliated contributors

Unaffiliated contributors are those contributors who are contributing (or have contributed) to the project but their organization association is still 'Unknown'.

Unique commits

Unique commits are identified based on the SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) associated with a commit. For multiple entries for a single commit, the number of unique commits are considered as one because unique commits are filtered based on the unique SHA of the commit.

Unique contributors

Contribution by contributors/developers based on their UUIDs. For example, if ten contributors have pushed 20 commits each, the number of unique contributors will be considered as 10, not 200 as it is the total number of commits.

Unique repository

The repositories based on their unique names. It refers to the complete path (also called origin) of the repository URL.


Universally Unique Identifier. The author UUID is given by LFX Insights based on the GitHub username, name, and email address of a contributor.


A visualization is data that is represented in a visual context such as a graph or chart. Patterns, trends, and correlations can be exposed in a data visualization.

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